Saturday, April 28, 2012

TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS OF FISH MEAL silage


Preliminary
The need for fish meal in Indonesia has increased in line with the development of poultry farming and aquaculture fishery products in accordance with the information DirektoratJenderal Ranch, the needs of fish meal for poultry feed at + 225 000 tonnes, which is one component of poultry feed is produced in the year amounted to + 4.5 million tonnes (poultry feed containing fish meal at 5%).
Based on estimates that are often used by analysts, the need for fish meal to feed the fish / shrimp for 25% of the needs of fish meal for poultry feed. From these estimates the need for fish meal per year to feed the shrimp / fish was estimated at 8,000 tons and the total demand for fish meal in Indonesia + 283 000 tonnes per year. Of the needs of very large fish meal turned out to 5-10% can be supplied from new production in Indonesia and the rest is imported from Latin America, Europe and Asia, including Thailand.
It is therefore important to consider floating fish meal processing and alternative products in Indonesia to help the difficulties farmers / fish farmers. It is quite possible because the price is quite expensive fish meal imports and domestic products to be comparative and allows for the use of raw materials "by catch". One of the alternative products that can be developed is the "fish silage" or "fish silage flour" (TSI) can use the raw materials of all fish and fish processing as well as the rest of the technology is very simple.
The technology of fish silage and wheat silage (TSI)
Fish silage is a form of protein hydrolysates along with other components of the fish in acidic conditions so that spoilage bacteria can not live kaarena pH range 4. Therefore, fish silage is a product of biotechnology in the form of fish such as porridge lumatan with acidic amino acids with a chain as a constituent of proteins into shorter and even some into amino acids. With the acidity of the silage is the reaction product can then be stored in a relatively long time because baktaeri decay can not be grown.
Raw materials
Silage feedstock in the form of whole fish, head pieces, the rest of the stomach contents of fish fillets and either fresh or less fresh. For the lack of fresh raw materials will be discontinued once the manufacturing process of decomposition reaction began because of reduced silage pH to + 4 will kill baktaeri spoilage that can only last a minimum of pH 5.5 +. In acidic conditions, only certain acid-resistant microorganisms that can live (grow) eg Bacillus spoilage are not certain but may menghidrolisa protein and fat are known as fermentation. Differences in raw materials will affect the protein content of silage.
Processing
To make silage certainly needed a material that can alter the reaction in neutral and slightly alkaline or acidic materials to lower the pH and before used for feed ingredients so that the reaction is acid neutralized. In silage processing are two ways that are biologically and chemically muarni.
Biological
Purely biological silage processing means no use of chemicals and called maetode fermentation. This process is usually added to certain microorganisms, usually a specific Bacillus sufficient quantities and in incubation at the optimum temperature of bacteria (ranging from 30 ° C) at room temperature (tropical) and anaerobic conditions. Fermentation time is relatively long it usually lasts more than 10 days, characterized by the destruction of the flesh and brittle bones that form late into mush and do not stink.
Although it is not added to the water but would form a slurry silage since the raw material itself already contains between 70 -80% water and does not smell as there is no process of decay and that there is a process of fermentation.
Chemical
Silage chemical processing is the process of making silage by adding chemicals that are acidic in raw materials. Such chemicals can double the spoilage bacteria to grow and begin to function as breaking the chain of amino acids in a protein called hydrolysis. In acidic conditions the acid-resistant bacteria such as Bacillus taerdapat naturally in our environment will grow and cause fermentation. Therefore taersebut chemical functions can also be said as a starter. This will speed up the process of silage paembuatan a + 7 days.
The acid used may be inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulfuric acid or even organic acids such as formic acid, acetic and propionic acid. Generally, the use of mineral acids are not preferred because the acid is relatively less acceptable by the living creatures that consume silage especially when excessive
Processing technology silage with formic acid as simple as inserting the fish into a container (tub) and when the fish / the fish are too big to be done in advance pencincangan saebanyak addition of formic acid 3% of the weight of the fish and poured while stirring to evenly. A mixture of fish and formic acid were closed and allowed to stand for 7 days to do the stirring 1-2 times daily. After 7 days it will be called fish slurry silage.
Neutralization
Neutralization prior to use can be done first so that there is no reaction to acid damage the digestive tract. Neutralization can be done by adding Na 2 CO 3 solution (caustic soda) or the other according to the pH range 5-6. If silage is neutral then it will rot if kept in wet conditions due to spoilage bacteria will live and grow. Therefore must be used immediately or dried into fish silage flour (TSI). If the silage made from fish hard parts (head / bones, etc.) that are large and fragile it is advisable to first be separated before being dried using a dustpan. The bones can be dried separately.
Fish silage flour (TSI)
To facilitate the storage, distribution and penggudangan and feed the silage making process can be processed into fish silage flour (TSI). In the manufacture of flour, a ready-made silage neutralized with caustic soda to pH 5-6 and added materials, namely rice bran or other suitable material and then dried. The addition of bran is intended to facilitate drying because it will expand the surface in addition to reducing the water content. The addition of bran can be done by the same proportion to the heavy weight of fish (raw material) or as desired.
Fish silage flour application (TSI).
TSI is one of the output in a simple engineering that aims to utilize the waste contained fish landing place (TPI) TPI to be more clean and not smelly. This is as one of the requirements to join TPI provide quality assurance in line with the implementation of Integrated Quality Management Program that refers to HACCP. In addition to the expectation that the TPI is cleaner, the fish remains can also be useful as a raw material such as pig fodder, etc.. But because the region is also growing in some poultry farms, the use of silage is passed into fish silage flour (TSI).
With the increasing need for fish protein is the use of TSI saaat become one of the alternatives that must have been influenced by the availability of raw materials, technological feasibility, and management review of business management. Besides, it also considered the impact of the benefits.
Availability of raw materials.
Given the TSI raw materials consist of various types, parts, quality of fish in its application is always oriented to the utilization of waste and catches have decreased the quality. If we use the example on the northern coast of Java where the + 20% of national total catch landed (Anon 1995b in Sunarya, 1996), then in 1995 had landed in the TPI along the north coast of Java at 554 047 tonnes. Of the catch is that having good quality (fresh consumption) is + 20% and quality is (for pindang) 40-60% and the remaining 5% of the total catch, including what is now the remnants of processing and others used as TSI is the raw material when the production of fishery products with raw materials acquired in 1995 by 27 702 tonnes and the TSI will produce 41.553 tons of TSI. It should be noted that the heads and entrails of fish by an average of 15% of whole fish. Therefore, the calculation above 5% as possible and include a calculation of a relatively low mean quite so optimistic in terms of raw material supply. It does not include fish landing places such as Sumatra, especially outside Java.
Technological feasibility.
With a very simple technology is the manufacturing process requires only 7 TSI soaking tub (so that each day of production) that can be made of cement or like plastic and drying equipment penepung and place. When the sun drying process of TSI will hemar energy, labor-saving and does not require highly skilled labor, so the technology is very feasible to do so in places fish landings. If a large enough scale production of mechanical dryers can be used with an energy source of firewood, kerosene or coal briquettes. For the production of 1 ton / day routinely required at least two workers.
Because the technology is so simple it can be done by anyone, anywhere with a small scale, home industries, medium and large. The process is also very little use of imported components while the only tool chemical penepung formic acid or caustic soda are produced in Indonesia.
Bibliography:
A. Anon (1993) Import of Fishery Statistics 1993, Directorate General of Fisheries Jakarta.
2. Anon Wheat silage as an alternative to animal feed, Materials Rapim MOA, BBPMHP Jakarta.
3. Djazuli N, D Budiyanto, et al (1998), Wastewater Engineering technology, BBPMHP Jakarta.
4. Kanazawa. A (1993) Importance of DHA in the organism. Proceedings of the First Indonesian Fishery Symposium, Center for Fishery Research and Development, Jakarta.
5. Sunarya (1996), the issue of Small Pelagic Fisheries in the North Coast of Java and solution efforts, Contribute to the Directorate General of Fisheries, BBPMHP, Jakarta.
Sunarya and Nazory D (1998) Development of fish flour in Indonesia, a scientific study for consideration by the Directorate General of Fisheries, BBPMHP, Jakarta
source:
By: Anto Susanto
Adapted from; Y.A. Jatmiko BUDHI M.M

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