Saturday, April 28, 2012

Role of lactic acid bacteria IN FOOD PROCESSING fermentation


I. INTRODUCTION
A. Background


Lifestyle of the people who tend to realize the importance of health, the need for food is not limited to conventional nutritional needs for the body as well as satisfying the mouth with delicious flavors of the food it serves is expected to maintain health and fitness. Such food products commonly referred to as functional food.
Many food products that are developed as a functional food among other probiotic products. Probiotics are live bacteria are administered orally as an addition to the daily menu. Many species of bacteria have long been used as probiotics is largely a lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp.dan Streptococcus sp (Winarno et. Al., 2003).
Cartney (1997) reported that probiotic bacteria maintain intestinal health, helps food absorption, vitamin production, and prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, it can enhance immune system function, cholesterol metabolism, carcinogenesis, and prevent aging.
Therapeutic products more nutritious foods known as functional foods. One of the functional foods are foods that contain probiotics are live microbes which when consumed will cause a therapeutic effect on the body by improving the balance of microflora in the digestive tract (Fueller 1989).
Other functional foods are foods that contain a "prebiotic" that is a component of food (food ingredients) that can not be hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes in the human digestive tract, but these components can benefit the body by stimulating the growth or activity of some bacteria such as BAL, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Bacteroides and Eubacterium in the large intestine that can ultimately improve health (Gibson & Roberfroid 1995).
One of the probiotic product containing lactic acid bacteria is yogurt. Yogurt is milk coagulation products produced through the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria, Lactobaccilus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus with or without the addition of other materials are allowed. (Nakazawa and Hosono, 1992), and many probiotic products containing lactic acid bacteria (BAL).
B. Limitations
The role of lactic acid bacteria (BAL) are widely applied in various fields, including agriculture, especially the field of food.
In the manufacture of this paper describes the role of lactic acid bacteria (BAL) on the processing of fermented foods. The scope limitations discussed issues such as species of lactic acid bacteria and fermented food sector lactic acid bacteria, refined products fermented by lactic acid bacteria and the role and the positive impact generated by the fermentation by lactic acid bacteria such.
C. Purpose
The purpose of this paper include:
1) Determine the fermentation of lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in food processing.
2) Knowing the role of lactic acid bacteria in fermented food processing and various kinds of processed foods that are produced.
3) Knowing the change and the role and the positive value of products produced on fermentation by lactic acid bacteria.
D. Benefit
The benefits to be gained in the manufacture of paper, including: to increase knowledge and insight into the bacterial fermentation of lactic acid and lactic acid bacteria in food processing, the role of lactic acid bacteria in fermented food processing and various kinds of processed foods that are generated, and changes in roles and positive value of products produced on fermentation by lactic acid bacteria.
II. Lactic acid bacteria (BAL)
Lactic Acid Bacteria. The term lactic acid bacteria (BAL) originally intended only for the group of bacteria that cause acidity in the milk (milk-souring organisms). BAL is generally defined as a group of gram-positive bacteria, does not produce spores, round or rod that produces lactic acid as the main metabolic end product during fermentation of carbohydrates. BAL grouped into several genera such as Streptococcus (including Lactococcus), Leuconostoc, Pediococcus Lactobacillus.
Identification of lactic acid bacteria based on morphology, physiology and biochemical properties of bacteria. Identification method according to Holzapfel and Schillinger (1992 in Widodo 2003), which states that the genus Streptococcus has characteristics that is, the final pH in MRS medium <4.6, negative catalase test, colony-shaped cocci, coccus-shaped tetrad is not, and did not grow at temperatures 100C.
Lactic acid bacteria (BAL) in the physiology of bacteria classified as Gram positive, rod shape or not kokkus berspora with lactic acid as the main product of carbohydrate fermentation. Traditionally, BAL is comprised of four genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus. For example the genus Streptococcus have been reorganized into Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Vagococcus (Yang, 2000).
Among the BAL genus and species that have potential for use as probiotics can be seen in Table 2.
Lactic acid bacteria have an essential role in almost every food and beverage fermentation processes. The main role of these bacteria in the food industry is to marinade the raw material to produce the majority of lactic acid (homofermentatif bacteria) or lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol and CO2 (bacteria heterofermentatif) (Desmazeaud, 1996). Lactic acid bacteria are widely used in dairy products like yogurt, sour cream (sour milk), cheese, butter and pickle production, and pickles (Lindquist, 1998).
III. Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Fermentation is the process of aerobic and anaerobic, both which produce various products involving microbial activity or the extract is controlled by microbial activity (Dervish and Sukara, 1989). Fermentation is a process that has long been known to man. Fermentation is the process of converting a material into useful products for humans, such as fermented milk goat, camel in Sumaria and Babylon in Mesopotamia era. Until now, the process has undergone perbaikanperbaikan ferementasi terms of the fermentation process to produce a better product (Tamime and Robinson, 1999).
Fermentation has many benefits, among others, to preserve food products, giving a taste or flavor of a particular food product, give a certain texture in food products. With the fermentation process is carried out by a particular microbe is expected to increase the nutritional value that is the product of fermentation. With the improvement of the quality of fermented food products is expected to receive the value of food by the consumer increases.
Utilization of sugar in the substrate for the growth of BAL will be seen by the increasing population of BAL cells. Overview of cell density increased from the beginning of fermentation to the end of fermentation.
The use of sugar in the substrate for the growth of this BAL can be seen with increasing kerapan BAL cells on a substrate. Breakdown of glucose in BAL cells produce energy for the activity will result in BAL-wa senya include lactic acid. Lactic acid produced by BAL will terseks-kresikan out of cells and will accumulate in the fermentation liquid.
According Tamime & Robinson (1985), carbohydrate fermentation by Streptococcus and Lactobacillus done through the conversion of carbohydrates into glucose and then fermented glucose through the hexose diphosphate to produce lactic acid as the main product. Organic acids produced will cause the pH of the soy milk to be low. The more sources of sugar that can be metabolized so the more organic acids are produced that automatically lower the pH as well. This is in line with the opinion of Chandan & Shahani (1993) which states that the lactic acid produced in the process of making yogurt can lower the pH of milk.
Yusmarini (1997) stated that during the fermentation of hydrolyzed protein will be dissolved components for purposes of the formation of microbial cell protein and further reported that only 20% of dissolved nitrogen components used for growth.
Metabolic activity of starter (BAL), which have optimum growth temperature of 410 C to 45 0 C (Gililand, 1985), thereby increasing range of activities such as changing the starter metabolism of lactose into lactic acid (Burows et al., 1963). Conversion of lactose into lactic acid that causes decreased levels of lactose and the media so that the pH of the medium pH reaches 4.0 to 4.5 (Gaudy and Gaudy, 1981).
With the increasing amount of acid excreted by the BAL because of the accumulation of acid in the substrate, it will increase the acidity of the substrate. Increased accumulation of acid in this substrate can be determined by the decrease in pH of the substrate. Fermentation process by BAL in addition to increased levels of lactic acid, the acidity of the substrate, cell density also increased levels of BAL fluid proteins in fermentation.
One important factor in the growth of bacteria is the pH value. Bacteria require an optimum pH for optimal growth. Effect of pH on the growth of bacteria is related to enzyme activity. Enzyme needed by bacteria to catalyze reactions associated with bacterial growth. Apabhila pH in a medium / environment is not optimal, it will disrupt the work of these enzymes, which in turn affect the growth of the bacteria itself (Pelczar and Chan, 1986).
Organic acids from fermentation products is the result of hydrolysis of fatty acids and also as a result of bacterial growth activity. Quantitative determination of organic acids in fermentation products is important to study the contribution to the aroma of most of the fermentation products, nutritional reasons, and as an indicator of bacterial activity (Bevilacqua & Califano, 1989). Organic acids are also frequently used as acidulants (marinade ingredients) that can lower the pH. So that the growth of harmful microbes in fermentation products is inhibited (Winarno, 1997).
Lactobacillus belong to this class of lactic acid bacteria are often found in fermented foods, processed fish products, meat, dairy, and fruits (Napitupulu et al., 1997). So far it is known that the presence of these bacteria are pathogenic and not safe for your health so often used in food preservation industry, beverage and potent probiotic product.
Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus or so-called L.bulgaricus is one of the BAL is used as starter cultures for fermented milk, potentially as expected due to the anti-cholesterol is produced EPS (Pigeon et al., 2002).
The ability of lactic acid bacteria in various types of carbohydrates menfermentasi a mainstay of identification, which showed specific metabolism BAL (Surono, 2004).
According to Sharpe and Holt (1984) that in order to convince the genus characterization of lactic acid bacteria, the thing to do is the Gram stain, catalase test, test test fermetasi carbohydrates and lactic acid. Generally, lactic acid bacteria are Gram +, catalase-, able menfermentasi carbohydrates needed for growth such as glucose are converted into lactic acid (homofermentattif) or lactic acid, CO2, ethanol and acetic acid (heterofermentatif). Acid produced from carbohydrates may occur either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.
BAL of different types will produce different protease enzymes with different specificity also solutions that will be generated a variety of peptides. The composition of amino acids produced during the fermentation process also affects the ability of the peptide in the binding of bile salts. Sugano and Goto (1990) states that the fraction of soy protein has a hydrophobic bile acid binding ability whereas Kwon et al., (2002) and Zhong et al., (2007) states that peptides containing hydrophobic amino acids at the N terminal has the capability the binding of bile salts.
IV. Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation Products
The process involves the fermentation of milk and produce lactic acid bacteria and dairy products (dairy products) such as yoghurt, Yakult, cheese, sour milk, butter (butter), and other similar products. Fermented milk products, like other fermented food products, they have good taste, and more durable than fresh milk. This is because the fermentation process produces a delicious flavor and aroma, and nutritional content is better because it is easily absorbed and digested. Lactic acid bacteria involved in the process of milk fermentation can also provide positive benefits for health, especially to maintain the balance of microflora in the digestive tract. The end product of such fermented milk known as functional foods (Surono, 2004).
Basic components of fermented milk is fermented sugar in milk, especially lactose into lactic acid and other acids. Lactic acid produced can improve flavor and reduce the degree of acidity of milk so few microbes that can survive Fermented milk can inhibit growth of pathogenic microbes and microbial destruction so that the shelf life of dairy milk can be extended.
Sptreptococcus thermophillus grow optimally at temperatures of 45oC to 47oC otherwise optimal growth temperature of Lactobacillus bulgaricus is 37oC. In the manufacture of yoghurt first thermophillus streptococcus that grew later on when the temperature dropped a new medium of Lactobacillus bulgaricus bacteria basically have the ability to form taste takes over the role of streptococcal thermophillus and began growing rapidly (Winarno et al., 2003).
A. Yoghurt
Yogurt is one type of fermented milk. Dairy products are rich in nutrients, such as proteins, amino acids, fats, and minerals. Therefore, the yogurt can be a source of nutrition and health benefits. Yogurt is milk fermented by lactic acid bacteria (BAL). These dairy products have a distinctive taste, texture and smooth semisolid, compact and fresh sour taste. Microbes in the manufacture of yoghurt starter bacteria is a partner Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Yogurt is one of the fermented milk-based products. At the beginning of yogurt made from milk of cattle such as cow's milk or goat's milk with a shape such as porridge or ice cream. The manufacturing process is, milk fermented using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus bacteria termophilus and active bacterial cultures in which there is (Widowati and Misgiyarta, 2009).
Actual process of making yogurt is fermented milk sugar (lactose) by a bacterial culture to produce lactic acid. Bacterial cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus termophilus who added it has a different task or function. Flavor or flavor that is in yogurt is fermented starter culture Streptococcus termophilus who played a major role in producing a sour taste. While Lactobacillus bulgaricus was instrumental in producing the scent through the production of lactic acid and acetaldehyde (Oberman and Libudzusz, 1985 in Winarno 2003).
Starter yogurt is generally a mixture of two types of bacteria are Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus. Use of both types of bacteria are intended to accelerate the process of acid production, increase the amount of lactic acid, improve the consistency of the coagulant and also improve the flavor (Muchidin, 1993). The amount of acid as lactic acid is one of the most important parameter was observed early in the research process of making yogurt, because the core product expected in the yogurt product is lactic acid levels produced by a microorganism capable of being used.
According to Lee et al, (1990), cow's milk yogurt contains lactic acid, citric acid, pyruvic acid, formic acid, uric acid, butyric acid, and acid orotat.
Lactic acid is the result of bacterial metabolism in the starter yogurt (Lactobaccilus bulgaris and Streptococcus thermophilus) in which lactose is the main carbon source
B. Buttermilk
The curd is one of the dairy products made by fermentation are naturally at room temperature for 48 hours (Sugitha, 1995). Fermentation product is a traditional food which is quite popular in the region of West Sumatra and Riau mainland. For patients with "Lactose intolerence", ie those who can not tolerate lactose, eat curd is one alternative to obtain the benefits of milk.
The curd is more readily absorbed by the human intestinal wall, so it can be consumed by a group of people who can not tolerate lactose, because lactose content of milk has dropped due to lactic acid fermentation and improve the nutritional value of milk itself that caused the active microorganisms in fermentation (Sayuti, 1993) .
The curd is rich in protein (6.30%), fat (6.73%) and vitamin A (80 SI). This is reinforced by the statement Sugitha (1995) that for the curds to be produced are expected to have a better quality of fresh milk. Winarno et al. (1980) also added that through the process of fermentation, food ingredients will experience physical and chemical changes that benefit such as flavor, aroma, texture, digestibility and power savings.
Good quality curd is a pure white color (Sugitha et al., 1999). The difference is in the manufacture of yogurt incubation temperature is higher (450C) and the incubation time is shorter (4-6 hours) (Dewipadma, 1978). The final results of the two fermented milk products is slightly different, the texture of the curd is more solid than yogurt, so that the curd can be eaten with rice as a side dish.
Increased bacterial colonies in the curd than supported by the nutrient content of food is also influenced by the availability of oxygen. In accordance with the opinion of Buckle et al. (1987), that the main factor affecting the growth of microorganisms include nutrient supply, temperature, water and oxygen availability. The aroma of the curd in bamboo tubes according to panelists somewhat rancid, while the scent of the curd in a plastic tube is typically flavored milk curds. The color of the curd in bamboo tube packaging has also been turned into a yellowish white color while the curd in a clean plastic tube is still white.
C. Soygurt
Soygurt is a product of soy milk fermented with bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus that has been commonly used in the manufacture of yogurt (Koswara 1995). Streptococcus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus thermophillus is essential microbial species and is active in a symbiotic relationship (Herastuti 1994). Yogurt is one of the food products are very popular today. Aside from being a food product made from milk is considered a product that can aid digestion, prevent diarrhea, to prevent an increase in blood cholesterol levels are too high, otherwise even help fight cancer (Chandan & Shahani 1993).
Protein content in soy milk was 15.27% and the resulting soygurt protein content ranged from 18.26 to 22.78%. The addition of sugar tends to increase the protein content soygurt. The increase in milk protein content of soybeans into soygurt due to the addition of microbial protein from being used.
Fat content in milk and soygurt soy, soy milk fat by 9.71% while the resulting soygurt fat ranged from 6.34 to 7.90%. that a decrease in fat content in the resulting soygurt. This is due during the fermentation, the fat will be hydrolyzed into simpler compounds.
According to Wood (1985) in the Yusmarini (1997) hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipase enzyme will produce fatty acids and glycerol According to Chandan & Shahani (1993), the hydrolysis of fats contribute little to the yogurt product.
D. Kefir
Kefir name itself comes from the Turkish language, which is keif, which More about freely in the English language is a good feelig or a feeling of comfort. Drinking kefir is berkesinambunganmenurut number kesehatan.tubuh penelitua very beneficial for the healthy of course always create a comfortable feeling.
Kefir is a dairy product that smelled sour, alhkhoholik and carbonate, which originates and many keukasia consumption in the region. Kefir is made through a fermentation process using bacteria and yeast microbes. Kefir is generated through natural fementasi of cow's milk with a combination of yeast organisms in bububk latkat and kefir. Types of bacteria and yeast are in use in the manufacture of kefir is lactobacilius bulgaricus and Saccharomyces cereviciae. Incubation temperature and the best yng in the manufacture of kefir is at 15 - 220C for 24-36 hours.
E. Koumiss
Koumiss often called "milk wine" or "milk brandy" as it is a fermented drink of milk beralkhohol. The name of koumiss obtained from asia tribes in ancient times, namely kumanes or komans.
Traditional koumiss made from mare's milk from grazing horse races kumanes that sustain life on the steppes of Central Asia until 1235. Koumiss fermentari result is a product of the bacterium L. Bulgaricus and yeast talura ahkohol producer. Due to lack of milk production of koumiss horse is now often made from cow's milk, but the milk has a composition that is not the same.
F. Viriegar
Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid produced by fermentation of two processes, namely the fermentation solution containing sugars into ethanol and then proceed with the process of oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. Viniger vinegar is a foreign name, derived from the word vi aigre which means sour wine. If the wine is left for several days in the open air, the alcohol in the wine will be fermented vinegar. The main constituent material of viniger is vinegar or acetic acid, vinegar, while the other constituent materials vary, depending on the base material of manufacture. This product is a solution of acetic acid in water containing the flavor, color substances and substances extracted, fruit acids, esters, salts of organic fruit varies according to the raw materials used.
G. Soy sauce
Soy sauce is a viscous liquid which mengadung protein obtained from the soybeans that have been boiling diragikan, plus palm sugar, salt and spices. Soy sauce is one of the fermented foods are common in countries east of the color brown, salty or sweet and pungent and is often used as a giver of flavor. The resulting soy sauce which are classified according to quality grade soy protein have a minimum of 6% and two with a quality soy protein content of 2%.
H. Cheese
Cheese is one of the dairy products are formed because koagolasi milk by rennet (a digestive enzyme in the stomach of animals producing milk). Part of the liquid milk terkoagulasi form solid gel-like substance called curd, and a large amount of water as well as some of the solute will separate the whey from the curd. In the first bahawa believe in the production of cheese by accident, when the bacteria in the digestive enzymes in milk and cattle react to form a curd, and then formed the raw cheese.
Cheese as a product of the dairy ingredients, is an alternative that can be used to meet the demand for animal protein. In the process of cheese pembutan, temperature plays a role in determine the length of the process and influence the type of cheese that is formed to include soft cheese or hard cheese (Radiati, 1990). Starter used was a double starter cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophillus.
Cheese is made by collecting the milk proteins with the help of the enzyme renin. The enzyme renin is in the form renet peeroleh. Colloidal dispersion of calcium in gangu fosfokaseinat can be damaged by Enzi and renin. Because these enzymes work there or know milk clotting cells. Actually, the cause is the presence of calcium ions coagulation occurs so that the precipitate of calcium caseinates.
I. Fish Products
One way to maintain the quality of fish is by adding lactic acid bacteria (BAL) (Buckle et al., 1985). According to Lindgren and Dobrogosz (1990), the addition of lactic acid bacteria (BAL) can extend the shelf life and inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on meat and fish products without fermentation. Antimicrobial activity is most likely caused by hydrogen peroxide, acid and bacteriocins.
J. Product Tempoyak
According to Rahayu et al. (1995) on the fermentation of lactic acid bacteria found tempoyak suspected Lactobacillus casei sub sp. a voluntary rhamnosus and Lactobacillus heterofermentatif heterofermentatif fersantum nature.
K. Other Vegetable Milk
Fermentation can lead to a new flavor and texture of some foods form so as to improve the acceptance of soy products. Fermentation product of soy milk made by adding lactic acid bacteria (BAL), but not all of BAL can live well on soy milk because not all BAL produce α-galactosidase enzyme required to hydrolyze raffinose and stakiosa there is lots of soy milk. BAL is only capable of utilizing the existing carbohydrates in soybean, especially raffinose and stakiosa who can live and breed well.
The fermentation process of soy milk by lactic acid bacteria can improve the binding ability of sodium taurokolat. This is because during the fermentation process of the protease enzyme produced by BAL will hydrolyze proteins into peptides and some bioactive peptides are produced that have the ability to bind bile salts. Erdmann, et al. (2008) states that bioactive peptides may be produced during the fermentation process during which milk bioactive peptides will be exempted from the parent protein.
Some commodities nuts have been used as a raw material for making milk, known as the milk plant. Milk plant that is commonly found on the market is produced from soy milk, milk kacangkacangan while others have not found. Need a breakthrough to make milk and milk products from other beans, peas, green beans, among others, milk, peanut milk, bean milk, milk cowpea, bean milk, and others. To obtain economic value added, increased nutritional value, the customer received the product as well as beans, peas will increase consumer choice of product variety of nuts need further efforts in the process. One such effort is by way of milk fermented beans using local BAL.
V. Positive Role and Impact of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Based on the results of previous studies, it is known that eating fermented products containing lactic acid bacteria can lower cholesterol levels in both animals and humans (Horizon and Peat, 1975; Mann, 1977; Hepner et al, 1979., Rao et al. , 1981 Grunewald, 1982; Jasper et al., 1984; Gilliland et al., 1985; Agerback et al., 1995; Akalın et al., 1997).
With a strain of lactic acid bacteria that have specific skills to be effective if it can survive the conditions present in the digestive tract. Therefore, strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria should be resistant to bile salts and gastric pH conditions (pH 1-2) when consumed.
Lactic acid is an organic acid needed for growth. Additionally the lactic acid is a compound capable of inhibiting microbial antimikrobia for another. The ability of lactic acid in inhibiting the other microbes and suppress petumbuhan generally are pathogens, will ultimately improve gastrointestinal health and productivity of livestock.
Mechanism of inhibition of growth of pathogenic bacteria by lactic acid can be through various means. Metabolic processes by Streptococcus sp will result in the accumulation of lactic acid in the medium, thus causing the decrease in pH (acidification effect) on the medium. Undissociated lactic acid in the bacterial cells resulting in decreased cell internal pH. This pH decrease can further disrupt the bacterial cell activity, including inhibition of growth related to the enzyme activity as described in the previous discussion of pH decline. Mechanism of acidification effects can be beneficial for the growth of lactic acid bacteria including Streptococcus sp because BAL has proven able to survive in the acidic pH, whereas most bacterial pathogens can not survive at acidic pH.
Various attempts were made to prevent cardiovascular disease, among others, by consuming foods that are hypocholesterolemic. Fermentation product of soy milk is one of the processed soy products that are hypocholesterolemic. Hypocholesterolemic effect of fermented soy milk can be derived from the hydrolysis of protein peptide by BAL (Nisa et al., 2006) as well as the use of BAL. Hypocholesterolemic mechanisms of soy protein or peptide from them through the binding of bile acids or salts.
In addition to regular consumption, the curds are also believed to cure several diseases such as fever, poor appetite and help increase fertility. Sugitha (1994), also reported that eating curds regularly can prevent a person from heart disease and tumors.
Antimutagenic by Lactic Acid Bacteria of curd. Many studies have reported the results of antimutagenic fermented milk products. (Hosoda et al, 1992; Hosono et al, 1990a; Surono & Hosono 1995; Usman & Hosono 1998). According to Hosono et al, (1988) and van Boekel et al, (1993) reported that the antimutagenic caused by the fermentation of milk casein content contained in these products. However, the percentage pengahambatan mutagenicity of calcium is very low compared with the cells of lactic acid bacteria (Usman & Hosono 1998).
BAL in the curd has been reported to have antimutagenic effects against various types of mutagens such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitroso-pyrrolidine (NPIP) and N-nitroso-piperidine (NPIP), mutagenic compounds are widely found in food and beverages (Hosono et al, 1990a).
The curd also have antimutagenic against mutagens arising from heating foods at high temperatures such as the shrimp paste (Surono & Hosono 1996) and tauco (Usman & Hosono 2003) are heated at temperatures over 1000C for more than 1 hour. BAL antimutagenic mechanism of whey by binding to mutagens and carcinogens in the digestive tract, especially in the small intestine and colon.
Yogurt or fermented milk rich in other nutrients the body needs, especially for people with lactose intolerance, arteriosclerosis, metabolic disorders like diabetes and high blood pressure. Dairy products is quite easy to make that opportunity to add the source of family income.
Beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria are Lactobacillus in the form can be used to support health improvement. The role of bacteria as normal flora in the digestive system. Its function is to maintain the balance of acids and bases so that a constant pH in the colon. Heprer et al., (1979) states that supplementation of yogurt for a week, can lower serum cholesterol in humans. Yogurt and milk lowers cholesterol after inducing hypercholesterolemia rabbit.
Yoghurt greater influence of the milk. Lactobacillus has great potential as a probiotic product for its superiority compared to other lactic acid bacteria (Davis and Gasson., 1981; Muriana and Klaenhammer, 1987). Furthermore Annonym (2000) says that the Lactobacillus plantarum and L. casei can be active at low pH and lactic acid produced in large quantities so that the forage can help save energy. Napitupulu et al. (2000) reported that Lactobacillus produces anti-bacterial.
Filtrate of Lactobacillus to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escerichia coli, even the filtrate was stored for 6 months with the same abilities. Lactobacillus is also able to inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria or other pathogens (Tagg et al., 1976; Chassy, ​​1987). Goldin and Gorbach (1992) says that the antimicrobial substance produced some probiotic bacteria, such as L. acidophilus produces acidotin, acidophilin, bacteriocin, lactocidin, L. bulgaricus (bulgarican), L. plantarum (lactolin), L. brevis (lactobullin, lactobrevin), and L. reuteri (rauterin).
Health effects which have been proved due to consumption of fermented milk (including yogurt) is spurring growth because it can improve the digestion and absorption of nutrients, can reduce or kill the bad bacteria in the digestive tract, working to normalize bowel (constipation and diarrhea) , has anti-cancer effects, can overcome the problem of intolerance lactosa, plays a role in detoxification and cope with stress, as well as controlling blood cholesterol levels and blood pressure (Robinson, et al., 1999).
VI. CLOSING
A. Knot
From the results of exposure of the paper above, it can be concluded:
1) Lactic acid bacteria (BAL) in the physiology of bacteria classified as Gram positive, rod shape or not kokkus berspora with lactic acid as the main product of carbohydrate fermentation. Traditionally, BAL is comprised of four genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus. For example the genus Streptococcus have been reorganized into Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Vagococcus.
2) Fermentation is the process of aerobic and anaerobic, both which produce various products involving microbial activity or the extract is controlled by microbial activity.
3) The process involves the fermentation of milk and produce lactic acid bacteria and dairy products (dairy products) such as yoghurt, Yakult, cheese, sour milk, butter (butter), and other similar products such as curd, tempoyak, fish products, alcohol.
4) Consume fermented products containing lactic acid bacteria can lower cholesterol levels, fever, poor appetite and help increase fertility.
5) health effects which have been proved due to consumption of fermented milk (including yogurt) is spurring growth because it can improve the digestion and absorption of nutrients, can reduce or kill the bad bacteria in the digestive tract, working to normalize bowel (constipation and diarrhea), have anti-cancer effects, can overcome the problem of intolerance lactosa, plays a role in detoxification and cope with stress, as well as controlling blood cholesterol levels and blood pressure.
B. Suggestion
In the manufacture of this paper would still not perfect either preparation, presentation and content / material related to the specific role of lactic acid bacteria (BAL) in the field of food. Hence the need for new references or updates related references from some of the more leading journals on the topic of the paper.
Another limitation is the material presented is broad and not specific to a product problem, so the translation of papers is also very broad, it is because they still lack reference of international journals and national journals are available to make the topic of the paper.
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By:
Anto Susanto
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