Saturday, April 28, 2012

PROCESSING OF COFFEE


Making coffee powder is mostly done by farmers, retailers, small industries and factories. Preparation of ground coffee by farmers is usually only done traditionally with simple tools. The results are usually only consumed themselves or sold when there is order. Preparation of ground coffee by small retailers and the industry has somewhat improved, with a pretty good machine, but still in limited quantities. The result is usually marketed alone or marketed to other small retailers.Making coffee powder is usually done by a modern factory with a large enough scale. The result is a neatly packaged in paper wrappers with foil, for guaranteed quality, and marketed to a wider range of fields.Preparation of ground coffee can be divided into two stages, namely stages of milling.a.milling stage.
milling stages of rice often called coffee is the process of heating at a temperature of 200o - 225o C which aims to get coffee rendang blackish brown. In the process of grinding the coffee beans will have two important process steps, namely the evaporation of water at a temperature of 100o C and pyrolysis at temperatures of 180o - 225o C. At this stage of pyrolysis, chemical changes, including coffee experience penggarangan crude fiber, the formation of volatile compounds, acids pengguapan, and the formation of a typical coffee-flavored substance.In the process of milling, the coffee will also change the color of a row of green or brown to cinnamon brown, then black with an oily surface. When the coffee was colored black and broken (cracked) then penyangraian stopped immediately, the coffee immediately removed and cooled.milling can be done by open or closed. Milling is covered mostly done by the factory or the industrial manufacture of ground coffee to speed up the milling process is closed will cause the coffee powder produced has a slightly sour taste due to water retention and some types of volatile acids, but the smell will be sharper because of the chemical compounds that have the distinctive aroma of coffee is not much evaporated. In addition a copy will be protected from outside contamination of the smell like the smell or the smell of fuel gas combustion products that are not perfect.Perendangan traditionally by farmers is generally conducted in an open ground by using a pan (skillet). When the tool is not there also be done in a frying pan made of steel / / steel. Heated skillet until quite hot, and coffee included. Coffee should always be stirred so that the heat evenly and the results are uniform. When the color of dark coffee brown (blackish) and fragile, coffee immediately removed and cooled in the open. To find out if coffee breaks easily pressed with your finger is usually coffee or a bite or hit it slowly by using a stone (Muntu).Perendangan coffee by the trader or manufacturer is usually done in private using a machine that is quite expensive as the batch roaster, so it is often not affordable by small industries whose capital is limited. Now, BPP Bogor has successfully designed a simple machine with a capacity roaster + 15 kg of rice price is quite cheap coffee. This machine has a principle similar to machines used by the factory that can produce ground coffee that does not lose quality.

The most important part of the tool is cylindrical roasters, heating, and appliance movers or cylinder player. How to use it, first cylinder is heated to a certain temperature and rotated with a certain speed depending on the type of appliance. At BPP Bogor design tool cylinder is heated to the temperature of 340o C + with a round of 20 rev / min.Once the cylinder is heated at a temperature and a certain round, then the coffee is inserted into the cylinder. Meanwhile, heating and cylinder playback continues. When the coffee has reached the point roasting (cooking roasted coffee) and coffee warming be stopped immediately removed and cooled. The time needed to reach the stage of roasting point depends on the amount and type of roasted coffee roasters used tools. In the instrument designed by BPP Bogor, to roast 15 pounds of coffee takes time + 1 hour, to 3 pounds of coffee it took only 15 minutes.b. Milling (comminution)Milling is the process of solving (milling) grains of coffee beans that have been direndang to get coffee powder 75 mesh maximum size. The size of grains (particles) of coffee powder will affect the flavor and aroma of coffee. In general, the smaller the size the better the flavor and aroma, because most of the materials contained in the coffee can dissolve in water when brewed. But there are some people who prefer the coffee grounds are not too soft.By the peasants of traditional milling is done by the coffee grind with the pestle called a mortar and pestle. Mortar made of wood or stone, while the wooden pestle. Once pounded into powder, coffee powder and then sieved with 75 mesh sieve greatest. Coffee grounds which do not pass the sieve were collected and crushed again.Small mill by industry or by the factory is done by using a milling machine. These machines are usually equipped with particle size control devices so that it automatically copies the coffee powder that comes out is having the desired size and do not need to be filtered again.Coffee that has been milled direndang and easy to experience the changes, such as changes in flavor, moisture content, and rancidity. Ground coffee is stored in the open will lose the scent and smells rancid after 2-3 weeks. Loss of smell is caused by evaporation of substances caffeol typical coffee-flavored, while rancidity due to a reaction between the fat contained in coffee with oxygen contained in air.To avoid a decline in coffee quality have direndang during storage, the coffee should be stored prior to grinding. Because coffee is not ground rendang have 2-3 times the shelf life of coffee that has been milled. Already ground coffee should be stored and packed in airtight layer (eg, plastic or aluminum foil). In the plant is quite modern coffee powder is usually packed in containers or cans are vacuum so that coffee can be stored for longer.Composition of CoffeeCoffee is not just a typical flavored beverages and stimulating because it contains caffeine, but these drinks also contain some substances that are beneficial to the body even though the levels are not too high. Levels of chemicals, vitamins, and minerals in coffee before and after direndang can be seen in Table 16.



 
source: Adapted from Coffee Processing Technology PTPTK

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