Palm Oil Processing
Palm oil is a popular source of vegetable fats for the production / processing of palm oil is high in the countries of Southeast Asia, and even palm oil became a major agricultural commodity and seed in Indonesia, in addition to coconut oil. This was due to several factors, among others: 1) a source of income for millions of family farmers, 2) State the source of foreign exchange, 3) starting from the plantation, manufacturing, marketing its products to be excellent provider of employment, 4) and industrial estates palm oil processing is spurring the growth of new economic centers, 5) drivers of growth and development of downstream processing industries based on processing of CPO in Indonesia, for example.: butter, cookies / biscuits, glycerin, soap, and detergents.
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Widely cultivated in plantations, among which is the type of Dura, Pisifera, and Tenera. Tenera derived from crosses of the type of Dura and Pisifera, has a high oil content (22-23%) and just not very high but the fruit early.
Part fruit consists of eksokarp (outer skin), mesokarp (fibers, coconut fibers are similar), endocarp (shell), and the kernel (palm kernel). Processing of the fibers (endocarp) by extraction can produce crude palm oil, while the processing of the kernel (the core) can produce palm kernel oil. CPO with advanced processing technology that fractionation can separate at least into two main fractions, namely stearin (solid form at room temperature) and olein (liquid at room temperature). Stearin further processing by downstream processing industries to produce products such as margarine, soap, wax, cocoa butter subtitution (a kind of substitute for cocoa butter), vegetables ghee (Vanaspati), shortening, etc.., While olein processing generally produces raw materials for the purposes cooking oil, although there are also other products such as margarine, shortening, vegetables ghee (Vanaspati), fatty acids, and glycerol or glycerine (glycerin). Another product from the processing of palm oil is red palm oil, where the content of carotenoids in red palm oil cultivated remained high during the processing. Functional compounds known as carotenoids, which are as natural antioxidants as well as pro-vitamin A. Further processing of the oil degumming process, refining, bleaching, and deodorization can lower tokoferrolnya content. Saturated fatty acid content of palm oil, palm kernel and coconut respectively 50, 86, and 92%.
Palm fruit crops
The fruit development period starts from the growth, accumulation of triglycerides, maturity, period cooking, as well as the decomposition of palm oil. Palm bunches when it began to mature will be marked with orange-yellow fruit perikarp and partially detached from the stalk.
Oil palm plantations at the age of 4 years has begun to bear fruit, and at the age of 25 years was not economical anymore. Young plants produce bunches weighing 2-3 kg / bunch, while the old plants: 8-10 kg / bunch.
Lots of raw fruit should not participate terpanen, while the ripe fruit is left to a minimum. Processing of palm oil produced from raw fruit yield only slightly. Yields are collected in the shade and easily transportable. In transport, should be maintained so as not to hurt or bruised fruit, because fruit wounds or bruises on the development of free fatty acids tended to rapidly increase during oil processing. Crops should be immediately brought to the factory to do the weighing and sorting bunches, as a preliminary stage prior to the processing of palm oil. Sorting aims to determine the quality of the crop (raw materials). Weighing aims to calculate the yield, determine the extraction efficiency in the processing of oil, as well as determining wage pickers. After the sorting is done on a bunch of water spraying to clean soil or other debris on the bunches.PALM OIL PROCESSING
This sterilization stage in the processing of palm oil are technically done with a steam / water vapor in the instrument cluster in a large autoclave sterilizer form. Sterilization purposes in the processing or manufacture of these oils are 1) damage the lipolytic enzyme, thus preventing the development of free fatty acids, 2) facilitate the release of the bunches of fruit, 3) fruit softening, and 5) coagulate gum / oil emulsifier so as to facilitate retrieval. Distribution of processing time for sterilization is divided into five sections, namely: 1) air expenditure, 2) time to reach pressure diperiukan, 3) time for sterilization of bunches, 4) vaporization of water, and 5) Removal, reduction, and reloading. When the processing time to the longest stage of the sterilization time, it will lose a lot of oil (3%) and kernel color black (dark). When the processing time during the sterilization phase is too short, then the fruit will be difficult to escape from the bunch at subsequent processing stages, namely threshing.
Stripping / threshing / pemipilan
The tools used in the processing stage is referred to as a stripper (sheller), serves to remove the fruit from tandannya by slamming bunches, so sometimes stage of this process is referred to as the stage or stages of the process of shock-shock treatment, with a range of equipment called a kickback station . The purpose of the process of stripping or treshing or dings in the processing of this oil is to: 1) the release of oil palm fruits from tandannya, referred to as brondolan pipilannya results, 2) oil extraction no longer absorbed by the stem so as not to degrade the efficiency of processing, and 3) the bunches not affect the volume of material in further processing stages. Stripper should receive the materials and equipment in accordance with the capacity for this processing stage, because if too much at first, bunches will protect each other, so there was a material that has not been released.
At this processing stage is used Kettles (enclosed in a cylindrical tank of the steam jacket, which in the tank there are knives or sticks that are connected to the main shaft, serves to destroy the fruit that has been separated from tandannya). Purpose of processing stages in the digestion of palm oil is to: 1) release of oil from perikarp, 2) produces a temperature suitable for the mass to be compressed (190 ° C), 3) reduction in volume, thereby increasing the efficiency of processing palm oil and 4) draining the oil that has been released during this processing stage.
Inside the digester, the fruit will be destroyed as a result of friction, pressure, and cutting. Oil also has started to be released from the fruit at this stage of this process. Digest the oil out through the hole in the bottom of the digester, and then be mixed with oil from palm oil processing stage that is the next stage of the extraction or compression.Palm oil extraction
In the early stages of this process, brondolan tercacah and out of the bottom of the digester is in the form of porridge. Count results are then felted in pengempa tool under the digester. Generally, compression tools used in the processing of palm oil companies is screw press. Screw rotation drive toward the fruit pulp cone sliding on opposite sides. Oil out of the fruit pulp and press through the cage.
Compression with a screw press in processing has the characteristics: 1) working with high pressure where the pressure is obtained from the velocity of whorls / srew, 2) the form of screw / helix that rotates in a container, 3) pressure on the press cake bigger, because the distance between whorls with a more narrow wall, 4) the pressure is too great resulting in many broken nut, and 5) are suitable for oil palm nut with a small percentage of large fibers and the percentage of fruit or nut proportion of about 20%.
Clarification on the clarification station, sometimes referred to as oil refining, the oil palm processing aims to clear in order to obtain oil with best quality and can be marketed at a price well. Clarification stages in the processing industry is a filtration, sedimentation, sentrigasi, and purification.
Crude oil from the digestion mixture and compression flowed toward the vibrating sieves (vibrating screen) to be filtered so that dirt can be separated in the form of coarse fibers. Crude oil and accommodated in the holding tank crude oil (crude oil tank / COT), then heated to a temperature / temperature of 95 - 100oC, with the aim to increase the difference in specific gravity (BJ) between oil, water and sludge so it helps in the deposition process.
The next COT flow of oil from the settling tank (continuous settling tank / clarifier tank). In the tank was separated into crude oil and oil sludge or sludge from treatment with the deposition technique. Sludge oil can still be taken by palm oil processing techniques such as centrifugation certain (centrifuge) or centrifugation.
Further processing of palm oil through a complex purification stage
source : kelapa sawit