Saturday, April 28, 2012

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES AS A FOOD preservatives

Many chemicals that can kill microbes or prevent their growth, but most of these materials are not permitted to be used in food interfere with human health reasons. Some chemicals are allowed in small amounts of sodium benzoate, sorbic acid, sodium or potassium propionate, ethyl format, sulfur oxides, etc..Preservative commonly used to preserve food that has perishable nature. This material can inhibit or slow down the process of fermentation, acidification or degradation caused by microbes. The use of preservatives in food should be just fine jnis and dose. A preservative may be effective for treating certain foodstuffs, but not effective for other types.In the U.S. agency the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) regulates the use of chemicals for food preservatives. Use of chemicals as preservatives must comply with FDA regulations. Some of the antibiotics used in food preservation such as penicillin, tetracycline chlorine, oxy tetracycline, bacitrasin and subtilin. In the U.S. chlorine oxy tetracycline and tetracycline permitted preservative FDA for uncooked chicken meat. In the U.S. there are no antibiotics are permitted directly as a food preservative, but antibiotics are allowed to be added in animal feed.KarbokdioksidaCarbon dioxide can be used as a preservative for meat and meat products because it has a bacteriostatic effect and fungistatik. Carbon dioxide inhibits the growth of some anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Facultative bacteria can also be inhibited by CO2 while the lactic acid bacteria and anaerobic bacteria is not affected by CO2. The maximum concentration used was 25%.OzoneOzone is a substance contained bactericidal to microorganisms contained in air or in liquids. Aerobic microorganisms are relatively more resistant to ozone than bacteria and facultative anaerobic. The lower the storage temperature, the greater the effectiveness of ozone. Ozone is very toxic because it increases oxidative ransiditas developments such as ultra violet rays.Food sterilization process is generally still use heat or high temperatures that can damage the material. What looks beautiful on the surface may not be pretty well what is in it. That may be the right phrase to describe the fruits or vegetables that look fresh with a bright color but not necessarily a positive effect on health. Let's say tomato. The fruit of this one always seems to look fresh with a reddish orange color. However, tomatoes are not necessarily safe. So that always a good tomato growers often spray pesticides. Pests that farmers feared it could not damage the tomatoes. However, the nature of the pesticides that can not be cleaned by the water will actually cause negative effects for those who eat them. Then, how to resolve the issue? What assurances can be held by consumers of fruits and vegetables that they eat food safe from harmful substances such as pesticides?Currently, it has been dikembankan a preservative tool by using ozone. This tool is in addition to clean pesticides are also able to ward off bacteria or viruses carried in the process of preserving vegetables and fruits. Basically, any food can be contaminated with bacteria or virus after a long process, starting from the sorting of raw materials, the process of cooking, storage, cleanliness of the place of processing, and transportation. However, the sterilization process in the food industry are still largely revolves around the use of heat or high temperatures, which in some manufacturing processes can damage the material. Has found a technological tool that uses ozone ozone sterilization process using ozone-containing water. According to the research, technology can be utilized as an alternative ozone safe food preservative. This technology could replace the often used dealer formalin. Ozone technology that was developed using the method of sterilization processing using berozon water. Ozone is active oxygen species that have oxidation potential 2.07 V, higher than the chlorine that has only 1.36 V. The oxidation potential With a high oxidation potential, ozone can be used to kill bacteria, remove color, odor, and describes organic compounds. "The surplus compared to formaldehyde, ozone directly into oxygen. There is no substance left in the food, "he said. The tool is designed with a simple. Fruit or vegetables put in a glass box and then sprayed with water berozon. Long washing this way is only about 15 minutes. After washing, the ozone will react to preserve vegetables or fruits such as tomatoes for three weeks. Preservation is not going to change the color and nutrient content. Because, ozonnya own content will be lost by evaporation. Therefore, if there are drinks berozon then that means instead of foods that contain ozone but the drink was made by using ozone. Unfortunately, until now this technology can not be used for processed foods such as tofu or meatballs. Because, the character of ozone on processed foods will react with the preparation beforehand. So far, the raw materials that have been tested are tomatoes, peppers, chilies, and some types of vegetables. This tool has been used in plantations Lembang and Pangalengan. The use of such technology could reduce production costs. Now, the tool used is still very simple. However, in the near future, the design tools will be enlarged so that it can be used for the production of vegetables and fruits in large quantities. Where elongated shape, like the machines in the factory. Then the tomatoes will go in and sprayed water berozon.This technology is also great to use for preservation of fish and processed foods without. But for fish preservation at the farm level will be difficult. So far, fishermen using preservation by using ice. "As to the sea, the ice was already melted," he said. For that, so far is still used for pickling vegetables and fruits. Households can have those tools. If making your own then it will only remove one third of the market price of Rp 20 million per unit. Ozone from oxygen is incorporated into the electricity went out ozone (O3). If the sun would hit ozone into oxygen again. To be able to kill bacteria only need 0.1 grams of ozone. While these tools once production can produce 20 liters of water or to 30 kg of tomatoes. Iktisar: a. Until now this technology can not be used for processed foods such as tofu or meatballs. Because, the character of ozone on processed foods will react with the preparation beforehand. b. So far, the raw materials that have been tested are tomatoes, peppers, chilies, and some types of vegetables.AcidMicrobes are sensitive to acid because it can cause bacterial protein denaturation. Acid produced by microbes during fermentation one would normally inhibit the proliferation of other microbes. Therefore, the fermentation can be used to preserve food in a way against proteolytic bacteria or other spoilage bacteria.Acids in food can be produced by adding acid-forming cultures, or directly adding citric acid or phosphoric acid. Some foods such as tomatoes, orange juice and apples contain acids that each has a different effect as a preservative. This is influenced by differences in the degree of acidity (pH). Acid combined with the heat will cause the heat is more effective against microbes. Because the pH contributes to the inhibition of microbial growth of spoilage, then divided by the level of acidity:food low acidity (high pH) with a pH above 4.5foodstuffs having acidic pH of 4.0 to 4.5high acidic foods (low pH) has a pH below 4.0Microbes berspora generally can not live and breed in the lower pH of 4.0 and microbes such as Clostridium botulinum berspora can not live at a pH lower than 4.6.Acid for a preservative commonly used include:benzoic acid (in the form of acid, potassium salt or sodium benzoate), which is the material used to preserve soft drinks and soy sauce (600 mg / kg) and juice, tomato sauce, chili sauce, jam, jelly, sweets and other foods that ( 1 g / kg).Propionate (in the form of acid, potassium salt or sodium propionate) is a preservative for bread (2 g / kg) and processed cheese (3 g / kg).Nitrite and nitrate (in the form of sodium or potassium nitrite and nitrate) is a preservative for processed meats such as sausage (125 mg nitrite / kg or 500 mg nitrate / kg), canned corned (50 mg nitrite / kg) or cheese (50 mg nitrate / kg)Sorbate (in the form of potassium salts or calcium sorbate) is a preservative for margarine, fruit juice concentrates and cheese (1 g / kg).Sulfite (in the form of potassium salt or sodium bisulfite or metabisulfite) is a preservative for French fries (500 mg / kg), frozen shrimp (100 mg / kg) and pineapple juice concentrates (500 mg / kg).At this time there are still many who are prohibited from use of preservatives and harmful to health such as borax and formaldehyde. Borax is widely used for meatballs, wet noodles, oisang molen, kemoer, domestic poultry, dumplings, rice cake, rice cake and dumpling. Besides aiming to preserve foods can also make a more supple texture and improve its appearance. However, borax is harmful to health, is antiseptic, bacteriostatic, fungistatik. Formalin is also widely misused to preserve tofu and wet noodle. Formalin is actually a material to preserve the bodies and organs of the body and are harmful to health is therefore in the regulation of the Minister of Health Decree No. formalin 722/Menkes/Per/IX/88 is one of the prohibited materials are used as BTP (Food Additives).SugarSweet taste, like the salty taste, a flavor that is very well known. Mainly due to the sweetness of sugar, which is a type of soluble carbohydrate (in water) are small, found in fruits, plants and other natural products. Common sugars are fructose (levulose, fruit sugar), maltose (malt sugar), lactose (milk sugar), glucose (dextrose) and saccharose (sucrose, ordinary table sugar we know). Saccharose is mainly used in processed foods. This can be obtained from sugar cane or from bit.Sugar is not only used in food because it tastes sweet, but also because of the reactions that occur during heating; of caramel and Maillard products. Caramel is obtained from heating sugars directly without any additional materials or water. The resulting caramel brown to black and has a delicious flavor. Maillard products resulting from heating sugars and protein. This is a very complex reaction, producing a variety of distinctive flavors like flavor breads, cookies, popcorn, fried meat, etc..Sugar can bind water efficiently. Therefore the addition of sugar into a product will give the effect of preservation because water is no longer available for the growth of spoilage organisms. Preservation of fruits or other products with sugar (like butter) or honey has been practiced for over 2000 years.Sugar is an important part of the basis on a variety of processed foods. Sugarless gum will lose its volume by 60%, while the various types of cake will lose 15-30% in volume in the absence of sugar.Sucrose in foodstuffs other than as a sweetener also serves as forming the texture, taste, and forming as a substrate for fermentation processes. Sucrose as a sweetener to enhance consumer acceptance by masking the unpleasant taste. In addition sikrosa also strengthen the food tastes as it balances the taste sour, bitter and salty. As a preservative of sucrose can reduce the value of relative balance and increased osmotic pressure by binding free water so that there can not be used by microbial spoilage. At a concentration of 30% sucrose can inhibit the enzyme ascorbate oxidase activity and the concentration of 50% will inhibit the enzyme activity of catalase.Some microbes can grow on osmofilik concentrated sugar solution, for example Zygosacharomyces and Sacharomyces can grow and cause damage to the honey which has a sugar concentration of 70-80%. Sugar is used in high concentrations above 45% can prevent microbial growth, so it can be used as a preservative, but the high sugared food products tend to be damaged by heat. When the microbes in a concentrated sugar solution, the water penetrates the cell membrane and flows out into the sugar solution. This is known as osmosis and events in this state have plasmolisis and inhibited microbial breeding.Sugar ChemistrySugar is chemically similar to carbohydrates, but generally refers to the understanding of sugar carbohydrates that taste sweet, small, and can dissolve. The word sugar is generally used as a synonym for saccharose (sucrose). In this section refers to the notion of sugar carbohydrates that taste sweet, small, soluble (in water).Sweetness usually found in plants is mainly caused by three types of sugar, ie saccharose, fructose and glucose. These sugars are individually or in mixtures with one another. Honey is a solution consisting of glucose, fructose and saccharose in water, with a composition of about 80% sugar and 20% water. Highly dependent on the actual composition of plant origin. In brewing, starch (carbohydrate that is not a big sweet) of the grains split into smaller carbohydrates, one of them is malt sugar (maltose), which has a slightly sweet taste.
SaltSalt (NaCl) used in the food industry banya. Low salt concentration serves as a shaper of taste, whereas in high enough concentrations can act as a preservative. The salt is ionized and attracted a number of water molecules, this event is called ion hydration. If the greater the salt concentration, the more hydrated ions and water molecules are trapped, resulting in decreased food Aw. Interesting activity in the salt water is closely related to plasmolisis events, where the water will move from a low salt concentration to high salt concentrations due to the osmotic pressure difference.Pickling salt effect (NaCl) as a preservative Cl ionic strength, oxidation and reduction reactions enzymatis. Na Cl solubility in water causes the O2 solubility in water decreases, causing denaturation of the protein so that enzyme activity is reduced. Provision of salt as much as 3% in the immersion will affect the fruit tissue. Salt acts as a selective inhibitor of certain pollutants on microorganisms. It also serves to remove the sap, improve taste and reduce the solubility of oxygen in the water, so the fruit will always look fresh.Effect of salt as a preservative is high so that the nature osmotiknya membaran solve microbial cells, the nature of proteolytic enzymes hidroskopisnya and inhibits the activity of the dissociated ions Cl. When microorganisms are placed in concentrated salt solution (30-40%), then the water will come out in the cell by osmosis and the cells undergo plasmolisis and will be hampered in breeding.Microorganisms have different tolerance to the osmotic pressure of sugar or salt solution. Yeasts and molds are more tolerant than bacteria, yeasts and molds that are often found on foods that have high levels of sugar and salt which is inhibited bacterial growth, such as the candied fruit, dried fish or dried meat.Salt is very often associated with high blood pressure. Salt we mean here salt (Sodium Chloride (NaCl) or Sodium Chloride). Physician is always recommended to reduce salt intake in people who suffer from high blood pressure, what more if they are old enough information.Sodium or Sodium is a mineral that is vital to maintain osmotic balance or balance the flow of fluid in the body. Blood containing 0.9 percent NaCl. We need approximately 200-500 milligrams of sodium each day to keep the salt levels in the blood remains normal to keep the body healthy. Sodium is also very important for muscle and nerve function.Sodium deficiency is often associated with various health problems such as muscle cramps (cramping), limp, and often feeling tired (fatigue), loss of appetite, decreased memory, decreased resistance to infection, wound difficult to heal, visual disturbances, unhealthy hair and split ends, and the formation of white patches on the nail. However, salt intake should not be excessive. Healthy people are advised not to consume more sodium than 2,400 milligrams per day. This is equivalent to 6 grams of NaCl or about one teaspoon of salt. Excessive salt intake can be fatal. Sodium works in the body to retain water, so that the circulating blood volume will increase.Increased blood volume will increase the pressure experienced by the walls of blood vessels. This is called hypertension or high blood pressure. High blood pressure can affect the health area. He can cause a heart disorder, stroke, and so forth. Excess salt in the body can also cause swelling of body parts, such as swelling of the leg in pregnant women, and can also lead to obesity because of water suspended in the body. How does a person's body response to salt is actually very varied. There are people who are not sensitive to salt. That is, excessive salt intake does not significantly affect their health.Rather, many people are sensitive to salt, especially if our systems have started to crash. Half of people with high blood pressure are the people who are sensitive to salt. Therefore, people with high blood pressure is always advised to reduce salt intake. Sodium Chloride is not only found in table salt, but also present in various foodstuffs. Therefore, high blood pressure sufferers as the father and mother you must carefully choose the food. Fresh foods such as fish, meat, eggs, vegetables, even fruits also contain salt. However, the numbers are not excessive and enough to maintain good health. However, many preserved foods is very high salinity. To reduce salt intake a lot of things to do. First, of course, avoid all foods that are salty. Salted fish should be left alone. If father and mother like dried fish, dried fish you can serve fresh (sold in many markets). Preserved foods in cans, such as mushrooms and bamboo shoots in a can, canned fish, corned beef (corned beef) and other generally contain lots of sodium.Intentionally added sodium in food is preserved, both as a preservative (sodium chloride / table salt, Sodium Benzoate), as a flavoring (Sodium Glutamate or MSG, commonly known as MSG), to enhance their appearance (Sodium Nitrite) or for other purposes. Because it should be left alone. Besides vitamins and minerals and other useful substances found in fresh foods are usually damaged and lost in the preservation process. Instant noodles, instant soups, instant chicken porridge, and other instant foods generally contain lots of salt. Then, should be avoided. Besides a lot of fat cheese is also high in salt.Do not provide table salt. Sometimes we are compelled to add salt if available at the table even though not required. If you took my father and mother to eat in restaurants, ask for prepared foods that are reduced or no salt. Avoid fast food (fast food). For these foods usually contain quite a lot of salt and we can not ask for special orders are low in salt. Health is more important than taste, not the taste anyway we can get used or taste, can be'' educated''. If we accustom ourselves to eat foods low in salt, no salt, over time the meal without any added salt taste good. In fact, if it is used to this, a little excess salt in the diet would be very bad taste. So, the important thing to say to his father and mother about the dangers of excess salt for their health, especially those suffering from high blood pressure. Strive for awareness to reduce salt intake comes from their own. Bring awareness of the desire or the will, and will educate the body's willingness to continue to feel the delicious food in the condition we want. The addition of various spices can also endeavored to increase the appetite.Our traditional spices such as onion, garlic, coriander, cumin, turmeric, ginger, galangal, kencur, bay leaves, lemon grass, lime leaves and others can increase appetite while also having to maintain health benefits. But, do not use ready-made traditional seasonings are now stout sold in supermarkets as well as in traditional markets. These ready-made traditional seasonings are generally very much saline to help preservation. There are actually so-called'' salt'' substitutes (salt substitutes). This material is taste salty but contain no sodium or sodium. This salt substitute made from Potassium Chloride or Potassium Chloride. However, this material was not free from side effects.Patients with impaired renal function or who are taking certain medications are advised to be careful using this salt substitute. Should consult a physician before using the health of mothers and fathers deal. Consume too much potassium or potassium can also have negative consequences on health. Besides salt, high blood pressure should reduce foods high in fat.Cut meat, eggs, sea food, and high-fat foods more, multiply eat vegetables and fruit fresh harbor. Pay attention not to a drug that a doctor can not eat on time. But light exercise routine every day. For example, brisk walking for 30 minutes and moderate exercise in the yard. And, last but not least, try to live a relaxed, sincere, calm and serene. I hope Allah SWT bless your family. Regards
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